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Infinitives, Gerunds, Participles 1 - Func. Grammar
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Revision: Infinitives, Gerunds/Present participles, Participles/Past participles 1
By michelle - Printer-friendly version worddoc (1 page)

1. Verbal Phrases: Verbal Phrases have a verb in a non-personal form.

The non-personal forms of the verb are used for various purposes.

bullet Combined with auxiliaries, they are part of tenses

To be + Gerund = Continuous tenses
To have + Participle = Perfect tenses
To do + bare Infinitive = Simple tenses

To be + Participle = all the passive tenses

bullet Combined with modals. Generally, a modal needs a BARE Infinitive. (You know this.)

bullet Infinitive phrases – the Purpose infinitive and other purpose clauses

We took a taxi to get there on time (Purpose Infinitive – general purpose)
We took a taxi in order to get there on time (“in order to” – specific purpose)
We took a taxi so that we could get there on time (“so that” + S + (modal) + V)
We took a taxi for us to get there on time (“for” somebody “to (do)” something)

bullet Participle phrases

Tired by the day’s emotions, they went to sleep early. (STATE – BEING IN A STATE)
Hidden by the trees, the child felt reassured
Glancing at her watch, she finished her exam. (ACTION – DOING SOMETHING)

bullet Gerunds

I’m interested in getting there on time (AFTER PREPOSITIONS)
We found them by calling all of their friends! (“By + -ing” indicates MANNER)

2. Clauses: Clauses have a subject and a verb in the personal form (because of the subject!)

bullet Noun Clauses
: Subordinate clauses acting as nouns

As subject… This made her happy
Living abroad made her happy (Gerund)
Having passed her exam made her happy (Perfect gerund)

As object… She loved that
She loved living abroad
She loved having passed her exam

bullet Relative Clauses: Subordinate Clauses as adjectives

As adjective: This is the X friend
Notice the tense:
This is the woman who was dancing in the park!
Cf. the woman who danced in the park yesterday
I saw the woman dancing in the park
Cf. the woman danced in… (NOT POSSIBLE!)
Tell the people who are sitting there
Tell the people sitting there

Those are the people who are studying in France
Those are the people studying in France
Take the book which is lying on the red shelf
Take the book lying on the red shelf

bullet Adverbial Clauses: Subordinate Clauses as adverbials

As adverbial: This happened then
This happened before we left
This happened before leaving

There is more on this subject. Check out the Table of contents of Functional Grammar