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Adverbial Clauses 3. Clarifying Use & Meaning - Func. Grammar
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Clauses: Clarifying use and meaning

TEMPORAL SINCE AND REASON SINCE

I've been living here since I left my parent's home arrow desde que
What have you been doing since we last met? arrow desde que

She took her raincoat since it was raining arrow puesto que, ya que
Since you have no money, you can't come arrow como, puesto que

Note: Reason since is equivalent in meaning as reason as. [As it was raining..., as you have no money...]

TEMPORAL WHILE AND CONCESSIVE WHILE

She made some tea while I was tidying up the room arrow mientras que
We stayed indoors while it was raining arrow mientras que
[=during the time that]

While* I agree on that, I still think you've been rude arrow aunque
[=in spite of the fact that; although]
Renting a house is expensive while* buying it is cheap arrow mientras que
[=whereas, in contrast]

PURPOSE SO THAT AND RESULT SO

We paid him immediately so that he wouldn't complain arrow para que
They took the plane so that they could get there early arrow para que

We paid him immediately, so he left contented arrow y así,
We know her well, so we can tell her your story arrow y así, por eso

CONDITIONAL IF AND CONDITIONAL UNLESS

They'll send it to you if you make a request arrow si
We'll get lost unless I can find the compass! arrow a no ser que

TEMPORAL AS AND REASON AS

Show your ID cards as you approach the entrance, please arrow cuando, a medida que
As we rushed along the busy street, Helen tripped!

I went to a supermarket, as I needed some whipped cream arrow puesto que, como
As you are ready, could you help me with this?

*Some educated native speakers consider this is a perverted use of while. While should be only used for time (‘during the same time as’, ‘at the same time as’). For contrast we are meant to use whereas

NB: Clauses can be finite or non-finite. In other words, they may have a finite verb (a verb with a subject, in a tense) or a non-finite verb (an infinitive, a present participle [-ing] or a past participle, with no subject, of course).

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